Die Auflösung einer Ehe im katholischen Kirchenrecht: The dissolution of a marriage in Catholic church law (Codex Iuris Canonici)

Im Beitrag vom 21.01.2020 wurde bereits das kirchliche Ehenichtigkeitsverfahren vorgestellt, in welchem das katholische Kirchengericht des zuständigen Bistums überprüft, ob eine Eheschliessung nach kirchenrechtlichem Verständnis im Zeitpunkt der Heirat gültig zustande kam oder nicht. Das Ehenichtigkeitsverfahren bezieht sich also auf die Frage, ob eine Ehe von Anfang an nicht gültig geschlossen wurde und damit nie bestanden hat. In wenigen Ausnahmefällen sieht das kirchliche Recht jedoch auch die Auflösung einer an sich gültig geschlossenen Ehe vor, so bei Nicht-Vollzug oder wenn die Ehe kein Sakrament war.

Auflösung einer nicht-sakramentalen Ehe

Wann liegt eine sakramentale und wann eine nicht-sakramentale Ehe vor? Die Ehe zwischen christlich getauften Eheleuten ist nach römisch-katholischem Glaubensverständnis ein Sakrament und heilig, weshalb sie nicht aufgelöst werden kann, wenn sie gültig zustande kam und vollzogen wurde (KKK 1639, 1640)[1]. Für weitere Erläuterung zum katholischen Eheverständnis klicken Sie bitte hier. Eine nicht-sakramentale Ehe liegt vor, wenn ein oder beide Ehegatten ungetauft sind. Kam eine solche Ehe nach der für die beiden Ehegatten verbindlichen Form gültig zustande (z.B. durch zivilrechtliche Heirat, gemäss dem Ritus der christlichen, aber nicht katholischen Konfession des getauften Gatten oder der nicht-christlichen Religion der Ehegatten) und wurde diese vollzogen, so liegt nach römisch-katholischem Eheverständnis eine gültige, wenn auch nicht-sakramentale Ehe vor, die grundsätzlich nicht geschieden werden kann (Can. 1141)[2].

Die Auflösung einer nicht-sakramentalen Ehe kann kraft Paulinischen Privilegs oder kraft Glaubensprivileg möglich sein.

Paulinisches Privileg

Nach dem sog. Paulinischen Privileg ist eine Auflösung möglich, wenn beide Ehepartner bei der Heirat ungetauft waren, sich jedoch zwischenzeitlich ein Gatte christlich Taufen liess und der ungetaufte andere Ehegatte die friedliche Fortsetzung der Ehe verweigert, ohne dass ihm der nun getaufte Partner dazu berechtigten Anlass gab.

Im Auftrag des zuständigen Bischofs überprüft das Kirchengericht, ob die Voraussetzungen für eine Auflösung vorliegen. Stellt das Kirchengericht fest, dass alle Voraussetzungen vorliegen, kann der Bischof eine neue Eheschliessung zulassen.

Zugunsten des Glaubens soll eine gültige, nicht-sakramentale Ehe dann auflösbar sein, wenn das geistliche Wohl eines katholischen Gläubigen und dessen Wunsch nach einer sakramentalen Eheschliessung (d.h. durch römisch-katholische Heirat) betroffen ist. Dies gilt, wenn entweder er selbst oder der zukünftige Ehegatte noch an eine nicht-sakramentale Ehe gebunden sind.

Die Eheauflösung zugunsten des Glaubens kann gewährt werden, wenn bei Eheschliessung wenigstens ein Partner ungetauft war und weder der getaufte und um Auflösung bittende Partner noch sein künftiger Ehegatte massgeblich Schuld am Scheitern der aufzulösenden Ehe hat. Gehört der künftige Ehegatte nicht der katholischen Kirche an, müssen beide künftigen Ehegatten schriftlich zusichern, alle Kinder, die aus der neu angestrebten Ehe hervorgehen, katholisch zu taufen und zu erziehen und ferner dem katholischen Partner die Freiheit zu lassen, seinen Glauben zu bekennen und zu leben.

Die Vollmacht zur Auflösung einer Ehe kraft Glaubensprivileg hat allein der Papst. Es besteht kein Rechtsanspruch auf eine Auflösung, vielmehr ist dies ein Gnadenerweis, den der Papst gewähren kann. Das Verfahren wird vom Kirchengericht im Auftrag des zuständigen Bischofs durchgeführt. Liegen die Voraussetzungen für eine Auflösung vor, ersucht der Bischof nach Abschluss des Verfahrens am Kirchengericht beim Papst um Auflösung der Ehe.

Auflösung einer nicht vollzogenen Ehe

Damit eine gültig geschlossene, sakramentale Ehe unauflösbar wird, muss sie nach der Eheschliessung durch mindestens einmaligen, gemeinsamen Geschlechtsverkehr der Ehegatten vollzogen werden. Ferner muss es für die Auflösung der Ehe einen gerechten Grund geben.

Im sog. Inkonsummationsverfahren (Can. 1142 i.V.m. Cann. 1697-1706 CIC) untersucht das Kirchengericht im Auftrag des zuständigen Bischofs, ob ein Nichtvollzug vorliegt. Das Ergebnis sowie die Untersuchungsakten des diözesanen Kirchengerichts werden schliesslich nach Rom überstellt, wo die Sakramentenkongregation[3] der römisch-katholischen Kirche den Fall erneut prüft. War das Gesuch um Auflösung wegen Nichtvollzugs begründet, unterbreitet die Sakramentenkongregation nach abgeschlossener Fallprüfung das Gesuch dem Papst, welcher die Ehe durch Entscheid auflösen kann. Es besteht kein Rechtsanspruch auf die Auflösung einer nichtvollzogenen Ehe. Dies ist vielmehr ein Gnadenakt, der dem Papst vorbehalten und nur von ihm gewährt werden kann.

[1] KKK = Katechismus der Katholischen Kirche.

[2] CIC = Codex Iuris Canonici, Gesetzbuch der römisch-katholischen Kirche.

[3] Vollständige Bezeichnung: Kongregation für den Gottesdienst und die Sakramentenordnung; eine Zentralbehörde (Dikasterium) der römisch-katholischen Kirche.

This content appears as a courtesy of HütteLAW, a proud member of the China Collaborative Group (CCG Association). It is informational in nature and does not constitute legal advice or establish an attorney-client relationship between you and its author, publisher or any member of CCG. For more information, please visit www.huettelaw.ch.

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